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GR-1 & RC-14 Clinical Evidence

Improved treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole plus probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;48:269-74. R C R Martinez1, S A Franceschini, M C Patta, S M Quintana, R C Candido, J C Ferreira, E C P De Martinis, G Reid (PubMed)

Augmentation of antimicrobial metronidazole therapy of bacterial vaginosis with oral probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:1450-4. Kingsley Anukam1, Emmanuel Osazuwa, Ijeoma Ahonkhai, Michael Ngwu, Gibson Osemene, Andrew W Bruce, Gregor Reid (PubMed)

Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral lactobacilli to improve the vaginal flora of postmenopausal women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2008;141:54-7. Ljubomir Petricevic1, Frank M Unger, Helmut Viernstein, Herbert Kiss (PubMed)

Oral use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. fermentum RC-14 significantly alters vaginal flora: randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 64 healthy women. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2003;35:131-4. Gregor Reid1, Duane Charbonneau, Julie Erb, Barbara Kochanowski, Dee Beuerman, Russ Poehner, Andrew W Bruce (PubMed)

Changes in vaginal microbiota following antimicrobial and probiotic therapy. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2015;26:27799. Jean M Macklaim12, Jose C Clemente34, Rob Knight567, Gregory B Gloor12, Gregor Reid189 (PubMed)

Improved cure of bacterial vaginosis with single dose of tinidazole (2 g), Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Can J Microbiol. 2009;55:133-8. Rafael C R Martinez1, Sílvio A Franceschini, Maristela C Patta, Silvana M Quintana, Bruna C Gomes, Elaine C P De Martinis, Gregor Reid (PubMed)

Efficacy of orally applied probiotic capsules for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;168:75-9. Goran Vujic1, Alenka Jajac Knez, Vedrana Despot Stefanovic, Vedrana Kuzmic Vrbanovic (PubMed)

Lactobacilli vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172:704-12. Mariëlle A J Beerepoot1, Gerben ter Riet, Sita Nys, Willem M van der Wal, Corianne A J M de Borgie, Theo M de Reijke, Jan M Prins, Jeanne Koeijers, Annelies Verbon, Ellen Stobberingh, Suzanne E Geerlings (PubMed)

Oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 to reduce Group B Streptococcus colonization in pregnant women: A randomized controlled trial. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2016;55:515-8. Ming Ho1, Yin-Yi Chang1, Wei-Chun Chang1, Hung-Chih Lin2, Mei-Hung Wang1, Wu-Chou Lin1, Tsan-Hung Chiu3 (PubMed)

Clinical study comparing probiotic Lactobacillus GR-1 and RC-14 with metronidazole vaginal gel to treat symptomatic bacterial vaginosis. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:2772-6. Kingsley C Anukam1, Emmanuel Osazuwa, Gibson I Osemene, Felix Ehigiagbe, Andrew W Bruce, Gregor Reid (PubMed)

A Systems Biology Approach Investigating the Effect of Probiotics on the Vaginal Microbiome and Host Responses in a Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Post-Menopausal Women. PLoS One. 2014;9:e104511. Jordan E Bisanz1, Shannon Seney2, Amy McMillan1, Rebecca Vongsa3, David Koenig3, LungFai Wong3, Barbara Dvoracek3, Gregory B Gloor4, Mark Sumarah5, Brenda Ford6, Dorli Herman6, Jeremy P Burton7, Gregor Reid8 (PubMed)

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 to prevent or cure bacterial vaginosis among women with HIV. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010;111:245-8. Ruben Hummelen1, John Changalucha, Nicodemus L Butamanya, Adrian Cook, J Dik F Habbema, Gregor Reid (PubMed)

[Efficacy of Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GR-1 and of Lactobacillus Reuteri RC-14 in the treatment and prevention of vaginoses and bacterial vaginitis relapses]. Minerva Ginecol. 2008;60:369-76. A Cianci1, R Giordano, A Delia, E Grasso, A Amodeo, V De Leo, F Caccamo (PubMed)

Probiotic Lactobacillus dose required to restore and maintain a normal vaginal flora. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2001;32:37-41. G Reid1, D Beuerman, C Heinemann, A W Bruce (PubMed)

Non-Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections. Beerepoot M, Geerlings S. (PubMed

Effectiveness of oral intake of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 on Group B Streptococcus colonization during pregnancy: a midwifery-led double-blind randomized controlled pilot trial. Sharpe M, Shah V, Freire-Lizama T, Cates EC, McGrath K, David I, Cowan S, Letkeman J, Stewart-Wilson E. (PubMed

A Randomized Controlled Open Label Crossover Trial to Study Vaginal Colonization of Orally Administered Lactobacillus Reuteri RC14 and Rhamnosus GR1 in Pregnant Women at High Risk for Preterm Labor. Yefet E, Colodner R, Strauss M, Gam Ze Letova Y, Nachum Z. (PubMed

Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates. Chew SY, Cheah YK, Seow HF, Sandai D, Than LT. (PubMed

[Effect of oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 on vaginal Group B Streptococcus colonization and vaginal microbiome in late pregnancy]. Liu Y, Huang Y, Cai W, Li D, Zheng W, Xiao Y, Liu Y, Zhao H, Pan S. (PubMed

Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 on the ability of Candida albicans to infect cells and induce inflammation. Martinez RC, Seney SL, Summers KL, Nomizo A, De Martinis EC, Reid G. (PubMed

Persistence of Lactobacillus fermentum RC14 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 but not L. rhamnosus GG in the human vagina as demonstrated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA. Gardiner GE, Heinemann C, Bruce AW, Beuerman D, Reid G. (PubMed

Oral probiotics and the female urinary microbiome: a double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Wolff BJ, Price TK, Joyce CJ, Wolfe AJ, Mueller ER. (PubMed

Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Tokas T, Athanasiou S. (PubMed

Probiotics. Some evidence of their effectiveness. Reid G, Hammond JA. (PubMed

Probiotics for the treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis. Falagas M, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S. (PubMed

Cervicovaginal microbiome dynamics after taking oral probiotics. Chen C, Hao L, Zhang Z, Tian L, Zhang X, Zhu J, Jie Z, Tong X, Xiao L, Zhang T, Jin X, Xu X, Yang H, Wang J, Kristiansen K, Jia H. (PubMed

Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC14 may help downregulate TNF-Alpha, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12 (p70) in the neurogenic bladder of spinal cord injured patient with urinary tract infections: a two-case study. Anukam KC, Hayes K, Summers K, Reid G. (PubMed

The role of cranberry and probiotics in intestinal and urogenital tract health. Reid G. (PubMed

Probiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: the rationale and evidence. Reid G, Bruce AW. (PubMed

Probiotics for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis: a review. Falagas ME, Betsi GI, Athanasiou S. (PubMed

Pilot assessment of probiotics for pregnant women in Rwanda. McMillan A, Rulisa S, Gloor GB, Macklaim JM, Sumarah M, Reid G. (PubMed)

A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled pilot study of probiotics in active rheumatoid arthritis. Pineda Mde L, Thompson SF, Summers K, de Leon F, Pope J, Reid G. (PubMed

Oral probiotics can resolve urogenital infections. Reid G, Bruce AW, Fraser N, Heinemann C, Owen J, Henning B. (PubMed

[A study of non-antibiotic versus antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary-tract infections in women (the NAPRUTI study)]. Beerepoot MA, Stobberingh EE, Geerlings SE. (PubMed

The influence of probiotics on the cervical malignancy diagnostics quality. Perisić Z, Perisić N, Golocorbin Kon S, Vesović D, Jovanović AM, Mikov M. (PubMed

Effect of 25 weeks probiotic supplementation on immune function of HIV patients. Hummelen R, Changalucha J, Butamanya NL, Koyama TE, Cook A, Habbema JD, Reid G. (PubMed

The influence of probiotics on genital high-risk human papilloma virus clearance and quality of cervical smear: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Ou YC, Fu HC, Tseng CW, Wu CH, Tsai CC, Lin H. (PubMed

Randomized controlled trial of probiotics for the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery associated with intrauterine infection: study protocol. Krauss-Silva L, Moreira ME, Alves MB, Rezende MR, Braga A, Camacho KG, Batista MR, Savastano C, Almada-Horta A, Guerra F. (PubMed

Nucleic acid-based diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and improved management using probiotic lactobacilli. Reid G, Burton J, Hammond JA, Bruce AW. (PubMed

Probiotics [LGG-BB12 or RC14-GR1] versus placebo as prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord injury [ProSCIUTTU]: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Lee BB, Toh SL, Ryan S, Simpson JM, Clezy K, Bossa L, Rice SA, Marial O, Weber G, Kaur J, Boswell-Ruys C, Goodall S, Middleton J, Tudehope M, Kotsiou G. (PubMed

Effect of probiotics on multi-resistant organism colonisation in persons with spinal cord injury: secondary outcome of ProSCIUTTU, a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Toh SL, Lee BB, Simpson JM, Rice SA, Kotsiou G, Marial O, Ryan S. (PubMed

Probiotics [LGG-BB12 or RC14-GR1] versus placebo as prophylaxis for urinary tract infection in persons with spinal cord injury [ProSCIUTTU]: a randomised controlled trial. Toh SL, Lee BB, Ryan S, Simpson JM, Clezy K, Bossa L, Rice SA, Marial O, Weber GH, Kaur J, Boswell-Ruys CL, Goodall S, Middleton JW, Tuderhope M, Kotsiou G. (PubMed

Efficacy of orally applied probiotic capsules for bacterial vaginosis and other vaginal infections: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Vujic G, Jajac Knez A, Despot Stefanovic V, Kuzmic Vrbanovic V. (PubMed

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